The most significant
individual in the nascent pet cloning industry is the billionaire
John Sperling. He represents the direct, overt connection between
the cloning and genetic modification of pets and the potential
cloning and genetic modification of human beings. He has paid
for cats to be cloned, holds patents to the cloning technology
used to create Dolly the Sheep, has bankrolled a human "anti-aging"
business, has stated his support for human "enhancement,"
and is attempting to influence the direction of the Democratic
The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO)
has opposed attempts to ban the cloning and genetic modification
of pets. It has not yet taken a position on California's AB
John Sperling made his fortune, estimated at $3 billion, from
the University of Phoenix, a for-profit adult education institution
which he founded in 1976. It has been accused of being a "diploma
mill" and "McUniversity," but when the holding
company, Apollo Group, Inc., went public in 1994, his wealth
exploded. He's used the windfall idiosyncratically, giving $3.4
million to sponsor medical marijuana initiatives and spending
a couple of million in 2004 on political ads with a libertarian
Sperling has invested millions in companies he established
to create cloned and genetically modified animals, and has a
major stake in opposing any legislation that would ban these
practices. He has shown a willingness to take public and controversial
stands, and seems to enjoy a fight.
Biotechnology has become a major focus of Sperling's activities.
His decision in 2001 to attempt to have a pet dog, Missy, cloned
lead directly to the creation of Genetic Savings
and Clone . ViaGen, which was spun off from GSC and is now
part of Exeter Life Sciences (one of Sperling's holding companies),
has "customers in the livestock, aquaculture and companion
animal industries." According to its website:
"ViaGen currently offers commercial cloning services
for cattle and hogs. We expect to offer horse cloning on a commercial
basis beginning in 2005. Please contact us directly for information
regarding other animals."
The company also offers gene banking for "any livestock
species, including horses"
Exeter bought the patent on the technology used to clone Dolly
the Sheep from PPL Therapeutics in 2003 for about $1.4 million.
It also considered buying all or part of Advanced Cell Technologies
(ACT), the maverick cloning company that claimed to have cloned
the first human embryo.
Another company held by Exeter, Arcadia BioSciences, is involved
in research on genetically modified food crops.
Sperling has committed extensive resources to extending the
human life span, up to and including the possibility of immortality.
He has said, "I am 100 percent for human enhancement!"
He plans to leave his fortune to a foundation to continue this
Exeter is the parent company of the Kronos Group, whose CEO,
Jonathan Thatcher, is also President of Exeter. Kronos (the
name is from the Greek for 'time', or 'lifetime') was set up
as an anti-aging or life-extension enterprise. The President
of its Science Laboratories subsidiary, Christopher Heward,
has longstanding connections with the cult-like Extropy Institute,
and founded a company with Gregory Stock, one of the most prominent
advocates of inheritable human genetic engineering. "I
got approved for $1 million per year to investigate longevity
genes," said one scientist. "I have never been able
to get that type of money from the government, not in 17, 18
years. It was too far out."
Kronos currently markets "optimal health" (Sperling
himself takes 23 pills a day) and downplays its interest in
immortality. Thatcher says, "We're on the edge, not the
fringe. We're trying desperately to keep one foot in the mainstream.
You can't be just on the fringe and make a difference."
Democratic Party Politics
Sperling sees himself as a champion of the underdog. He says
he founded the University of Phoenix largely to broaden access
to higher education. He has been a major funder of the Democratic
Party for years, and donated significantly to John Kerry's 2004
campaign for the presidency.
He also co-wrote The Great Divide: Retro vs Metro America,
which was released in 2004 (presumably self-published; Polipoint
Press has no other titles). The book urged Democrats to focus
on what he saw as their base - the "metro" vote -
and to leave the "retro" vote to the Republicans.
He backed this up with a large advertising campaign. In Sperling's
vision, the Democrats should become the party of elite techno-corporate
entrepreneurs and their creative, socially liberal employees
and customers living in the metropolitan communities of the
United States. They should leave the uneducated working class,
religious and rural constituencies to the Republicans.
A review of The Great Divide in the New York Times concluded
that it gave some Democrats
"demographic, poll-based vindication for the strategy
they have been pursuing all along: forget the focus on class
conflict that defined the party in the old days, and rebrand
the Democrats as the voice of enlightened industry versus dirty
industry; of sensitive, artistic billionaires versus loathsome,
racist billionaires.... Sperling and company have walked
cluelessly into a familiar stereotype: the 'liberal elite.'"
Brian Alexander, "John Sperling Wants You to Live Forever,"
Wired, (February 2004)
Brian Alexander, Rapture: How Biotech Became the New Religion,
Basic Books, New York, 2003, especially pp. 235-43
Melanie Warner, "Inside the Very Strange World of Billionaire
John Sperling," Fortune, (April 29, 2002)
[not available on the web]
Rebecca Sinderbrand, "Inside 'The Great Divide',"
Newsweek, (August 21, 2004)
Wendy Goldman Rohm, "Seven Days of Creation,"
Wired (January 2004)
Paul Keegan, "Essay Question: The Web is Transforming
the University. How and Why? (Please Use Examples.)"
Business 2.0, (December 2000);
Jim Drinkard, "Independent voices Rising in Ads,"
USA Today, (August 18, 2004)
Thomas Frank, "American Psuche," New York
Times, (November 28, 2004)
The Biotechnology Industry Organization
BIO is the main political and lobbying arm of the biotechnology
industry. To date it has opposed restrictions on cloned and
genetically modified pets. The northern and southern Californian
associations - BayBIO and BIOCOM, respectively - jointly wrote
letters to the California Fish and Game Commission, on BIO letterhead,
objecting both to its ban on GloFish
and more generally to its regulations about genetically modified
fish. They complained that the "regulatory language adopted
by the Commission appears to criminalize the process of transgenesis
for these animals" and "effectively ban[s] the commercial
or recreational use and possession of transgenic aquatic animals."
This is correct, and precisely what the Fish and Game Commission
intended to do.
Concerning the GloFish, the industry asserted that lack of
evidence of harm was enough to justify an exception to the ban,
and cited E.O. Wilson's Biophilia as attesting to the "social
and medically therapeutic benefits of companion animals"
whom advances in biotechnology are claimed to benefit. In other
words, we should genetically modify pets because it will improve
their "health and well being."
BIO's director of animal biotechnology supports efforts to
create genetically modified pet cats free of allergens
and has speculated about "a dog that isn't as susceptible
to hip dysplasia, an ailment common among German shepherds and
Labrador retrievers that's associated with over-breeding."
To date, at least, BIO supports it all. It remains to be seen
what position they will take on AB 1428.
BIO's comments on the one-year review of the transgenic fish
BIO's specific comments about the ban on Glofish
Comments by the Center for Food Safety (CFS) on the one-year
review of the transgenic fish regulations
CFS's specific comments about the ban on Glofish
Griff Witte, "New Biotech Pets Make Some Uneasy,"
Washington Post, 03/13/04